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What is anaemia?

Anaemia is a condition where the blood doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells. It occurs when blood is lost or destroyed faster than the body can replace it. This leads to reduced oxygen flow to the body’s organs.

Causes of anaemia.

The causes of anaemia vary, some certain sicknesses; malaria, typhoid, sickle cell disease, and worms can cause anaemia. It can also come from not eating healthy foods rich in iron, a diet lacking meat, and dark green leafy vegetables. It can also come from breastfeeding or bottle-feeding a child after 6 months without giving other foods too. In addition, blood loss from large wounds, bleeding ulcers, or dysentery can cause anaemia. So also monthly bleeding(menstrual period) in women, if they don’t eat the food their bodies need.

Symptoms of anaemia.

The symptoms of anaemia are:

  • Pale gum.
  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • Pale insides of eyelids.
  • White fingernails.
  • If the anaemia is very severe, the heartbeat is rapid, and the face and feet may be swollen, the person may have shortness of breath.
  • Dizziness.
  • Headaches.

Treatment of anaemia.

The treatment of anaemia varies, depending on the underlying diagnosis. Medication to induce blood formation may be used if the body’s blood formation is reduced. Vitamin B supplements may be used for low vitamins level. Iron supplements may be used for iron deficiency. Blood transfusion can be used for blood loss. To prevent anaemia, eat meat, fish, chicken and foods that are high in iron. Liver is especially high. Dark green leafy vegetables, beans, peas, and lentils also have some iron. To help the body absorb more iron, eat raw vegetables and fruit with meals.

Many women are anaemic, and anaemic women run a greater risk of miscarriage and dangerous bleeding during childbirth, they must eat as many foods high in iron as possible, especially during pregnancy.


What is cataract?

A cataract is a disease of the eye which causes the lens of the eye, behind the pupil to become cloudy, which makes the pupil look grey or white.

Types of cataracts.

Traumatic cataracts: This is caused by serious injuries which cause damage to the lens. It could form soon after the injury or many years later.

Age-related cataracts: As you advance in age, a cataract is likely to be formed because of the natural changes in the lens of the eye. It is the most common type of cataract. You may develop this type of cataract if you:

  • Drink too much alcohol.
  • Have diabetes.
  • Smoke.
  • Have had certain surgeries like, glaucoma surgery.
  • Have a family history of cataracts.
  • Take steroids (a medicine used to treat some health issues, like arthritis and allergies).

Radiation cataracts: some radiation can cause cataracts. This includes ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun.

Pediatric cataracts: Cataracts in children are rare, they are mostly hereditary, meaning they run in families. They can also happen because of serious problems during pregnancy, or because of illness during childhood like a tumour of the eye. Children can also get cataracts for the same reason as an adult. If pediatric cataracts are large enough, they need to be treated right away, it is crucial to treat them at an early stage to avoid other vision problems.

Secondary cataracts: It is possible to develop scar tissue in the eye after surgery which can make your vision cloudy again. Secondary cataracts are common.

Symptoms of cataracts.

  • Colours look faded.
  • You see a halo around lights.
  • Your vision is cloudy or blurry.
  • You have to change the prescription for your glasses or contact lens often.
  • You see double ( this sometimes goes away as the cataract gets bigger).

Causes of cataracts.

As you grow older, some normal changes occur in the eye, these changes cause cataracts. A cataract is formed when the proteins in the lens of the eye break down and clump together to form a cloudy area on the lens of the eye. These changes happen to people who are 40 years old and above. Over time, the cataract gets worse and makes more of your lens cloudy.

Treatment of cataracts.

Cataracts can be treated surgically which is the only way to treat them, but you may not need to get surgery right away. You may be able to make small changes to manage cataracts by doing things like:

  • Wearing anti-glare glasses.
  • Using brighter light at home or work.
  • Using magnifying lenses for reading and other activities.

How can cataracts be prevented?

You can prevent cataracts by:

  • Protecting your eyes from the sun, with the use of sunglasses and a hat with a brim to block the sun.
  • Eating healthy foods that improve the eye such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains.
  • Protecting your eye from injuries while doing activities like playing certain sports, wearing protective eyewear will protect the eye from getting accidentally injured.
  • Quitting smoking.

In conclusion, cataracts can lead to total blindness if left untreated, you should call the attention of your doctor once you notice any sign of cataracts.

What is asthma?

Asthma is a condition in which the airways narrow and swell and may produce extra mucus. This can cause shortness of breath, wheezing while breathing, and shortness of breath. Asthma can become a life-threatening attack for some people, but at the same time, it can be a minor issue for some people.

Symptoms of asthma.

The symptoms of asthma differ from person to person. Some of the symptoms of asthma may come at different times, like when exercising. The symptoms of asthma include:

  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Tightness in the chest or pain.
  • Wheezing when exhaling.
  • Coughing.
  • Increased mucus production.

Swelling in the airway prevents oxygen from getting to the lungs, in this manner, oxygen cannot enter the bloodstream or reach vital organs.

Causes of asthma.

  • Being exposed to cold air.
  • Strong emotions and stress.
  • Respiratory infections.
  • Certain medications.
  • Chemical fumes, gases or dust.

In certain people, asthma signs and symptoms are triggered in certain situations:

Exercise-induced asthma: this occurs when more cold and dry air is being inhaled.

Allergy-induced asthma: this is triggered by airborne substances such as, mold spores, cockroach waste, pollen, or dried saliva shed by pets.

Occupational asthma: this is caused by workplace irritants such as gases, dust, or chemical fumes.

Treatment of asthma.

Asthma can’t be cured because it changes over time, the symptoms can only be controlled. You must work with your doctor to track the signs and symptoms and adjust the treatment if needed.

All you need to know about gonorrhoea.

Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoea. Gonorrhea can be traced back to the earliest records of the human race even if Albert Neisser first described gonococcus in 1879. There is some conflict of opinion regarding its exact origin, but according to the concurrence. The disease has been present since ancient times.

Mode of transmission.

Gonorrhoea can be transmitted by having oral, anal, or vaginal sex. Condom usage or other barrier methods helps prevent the risk of contracting or transmitting the disease. But the best way to stay secure is abstinence. If a pregnant woman is infected with the disease, it can be transmitted from her to her child during birth if it’s not treated which will cause the baby to be blind.

Symptoms of gonorrhoea.

Some people can be infected with the disease and might not have symptoms of gonorrhoea but can spread the disease, there are certain symptoms of gonorrhoea for males and females:

In males:

  • Pain or difficulty in urination.
  • Sometimes there is a painful swelling of the testicles.
  • Drops of pus from the penis.

After weeks or months:

  • Painful swelling in one or both knees, ankles or wrists, or many other problems.
  • Rash or sores all over the body.
  • Infertility (he may become sterile).

In females:

At first, there are no symptoms.

  • She may feel little pain while urinating.
  • Greenish vaginal discharge.

After weeks or months.

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Pain in the lower belly.
  • Menstrual problems.
  • Urinary problems.
  • Infertility (she may become sterile).


Gonorrhoea is curable if the right antibiotics are prescribed by a medical professional.

Things to avoid in our diet.

People believe that many kinds of foods will cause harm to them or there are foods they should not eat when they are sick. Some believe that many kinds of foods are bad for a mother with a newborn child. Some beliefs are reasonable but others do more harm than good. Many times, the food people think they should avoid when they are sick are what they need to get well. The same food that is good for us when we are healthy is also good for us when we are sick. So also, the things that harm us when we are healthy will harm us when are sick. A few diseases are caused by not eating certain foods the body require. For example, people with high blood pressure, certain heart problems, or swollen feet should use little or no salt. Too much salt is not good for anyone. Stomach ulcers and diabetes also require special diets like whole-grain bread.

There are certain things to avoid in our diet:

  • Alcohol: it causes or makes worse diseases of the liver, stomach, and nerves. It also causes social problems. It can also cause cancer of the breast, mouth, throat, oesophagus, voice box, colon and rectum. In addition, it weakens the immune system and increases the chance of getting sick.
  • Smoking: this can cause chronic, long-term coughing or lung cancer and other health issues. It is especially bad for people with lung diseases like tuberculosis, asthma, and bronchitis. Babies of mothers who smoke during pregnancy are smaller and develop more slowly than babies whose mothers did not smoke.
  • Too much greasy food, hot spices, or coffee can cause stomach ulcers and other problems with the digestive tract.
  • Too much sugar and sweets spoil the appetite, rot the teeth, can cause heart problems and can be the cause of intestinal cancer. However, some sugar may help give needed energy to a very sick person or poorly nourished child.

Syphilis infection.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease(STD) that is spread from person to person through sexual contact. It is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which causes infection when it gets into broken skin or mucus membranes, usually of the genitals.

Symptoms of syphilis infection.

Syphilis has stages of symptoms, at the first stage, a sore called chancre appears after 2 to 5 weeks of sexual contact with the person who has syphilis. The chancre may look like a pimple, a blister, or an open sore. It usually appears in the genital area of a man or woman, it also appears less commonly on the lips, fingers, anus or mouth. The sore is full of germs which are easily passed on to another person. The sore is usually painless, if it’s inside the vagina, the woman may not know she has it and she can easily infect another person. The sore only lasts a few days and then goes away by itself without any treatment, but the disease continues to spread in the body. In the second stage, rashes appear all over the body, mostly on the hands, feet, and genital area, weeks or months later, there may be sore throat, mild fever, mouth sores, or swollen joints. In addition, other signs may include; headaches, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, and muscle aches.

All of these signs usually go away by themselves, and then the person often thinks he is well, but the disease continues. Without adequate treatment, syphilis can invade any part of the body, causing heart disease, paralysis, insanity, and many other problems.

Can syphilis be cured?

Yes, it can! With the right antibiotics from your healthcare provider.

What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by a bacterial or viral infection in which the air sacs are filled with pus and may become solid, inflammation may affect both lungs ( double pneumonia ) or only one( single pneumonia ). Pneumonia can run in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. It occurs mostly in young children and infants, people with health issues and weakened immune systems, and people older than age 65.

Symptoms of pneumonia.

The symptoms of pneumonia vary depending on how serious it is. It can run from mild to life-threatening. The symptoms of pneumonia may include:

  • Rapid, shallow breathing, with little grunts or sometimes wheezing. The nostrils may spread with each breath.
  • Fatigue.
  • Chest pain when breathing or coughing.
  • Cough, which may produce phlegm.
  • Changes in mental awareness or confusion (in adults 65 years and older).
  • Sweating and shaking chills, fever.
  • Vomiting or diarrhoea.
  • Low body temperature (in adults older than age 65 and people with weak immune systems.

If you notice any of these symptoms, get medical attention to avoid further complications. For some older people with heart failure or chronic lung problems, pneumonia can quickly become a life-threatening condition.

How can pneumonia be spread?

Pneumonia can be spread from person to person by coughing, sneezing or having close facial contact. It launches tiny droplets of fluid containing germs into the air, which someone else can breathe in.

How can pneumonia be treated?

Pneumonia can be treated through the use of antibiotics prescribed by a doctor.

How can pneumonia be prevented?

  • Do not smoke: smoking damages the lung’s natural defence against respiratory infections.
  • Get vaccinated: vaccines are available to prevent the infection.
  • Keep your immune system strong: eat a healthy diet, get enough sleep and exercise regularly.
  • Practice good hygiene: good hygiene should be practised to prevent germs and other respiratory infections that lead to pneumonia.

What causes tetanus infection?

Tetanus infection is a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani. The spores of the bacteria live in the environment including dust, soil and manure, the spores of the bacteria result in tetanus infection when it comes into the body. The infection can get into the body through a wound.

What are the symptoms of tetanus?

Tetanus infection is very deadly and can lead to death if left untreated, so it is important to get medical attention if you observe the following symptoms:

  • Wounds with pus.
  • Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Convulsion.
  • The muscles of the neck and other parts of the body get stiff.
  • The jaw gets stiff.
  • Rigid abdominal muscles.
  • Headache.
  • Fever.
  • Seizures.
  • Change in blood pressure and heart rate.

It is very important to start treating tetanus at the first sign.

How can tetanus be prevented?

The infection can be prevented through vaccines and also by treating wounds appropriately.

What causes mumps?

Mumps is a general illness that can happen to anyone who is exposed to the infection. Mumps is an illness caused by a virus, it usually affects the parotid gland; the glands that produce saliva which is located on each side of the face. Mumps is not common in the United States because of vaccines but there are outbreaks, vaccinated people who are infected with the illness tend to have fewer complications and mild symptoms but people who are not vaccinated tend to have a high risk of the illness. The virus dwells in the saliva when an infected person coughs or sneezes, a tiny particle of the virus is deposited in the air, one can get infected by breathing in tiny droplets of the virus, and you can also get infected by touching the surface in which the tiny particles landed on, in addition, you can be infected by sharing water bottles or kissing.

What are the symptoms of mumps?

Mumps has general symptoms and also complicated symptoms, the complicated symptoms will occur when mumps is left untreated affecting other parts of the body. The symptoms of mumps show up after 2-3 weeks of exposure to the illness. Some people have no symptoms or very mild symptoms. general symptoms of mumps are:

  • Swelling of the salivary glands arises in a few days.
  • Fever.
  • Headache.
  • Difficulty in eating.
  • Muscle pain.
  • Fatigue.
  • Pains around the swelling.

How can mumps be treated?

When it is discovered, it is advisable to go to the clinic for proper treatment of the illness.

10 health benefits of cucumbers

The cucumber is like everyone’s boring fruit, in the veggie world, it’s not a bad veggie and it’s not exactly yummy, it is one of the vegetables that are rich with a lot of supplements and are good for healthy living. It’s rich with a lot of fibre and water and low in sugar and calories, cucumber is one of the best veggies to add to your diet. There are a lot of health benefits of cucumber when it is eaten and also when it is applied to the skin. Cucumbers can help you reduce puffy eyes and redness around the eyes.

10 benefits of cucumber.

They can make your skin glow: cucumbers have cleansing properties that can help your skin, and they also contain treatment for summer sunburn. According to studies, making a cucumber mask and applying it to your skin makes you look younger and fresher.

They are hydrating: cucumber contains 95% of water which can quench your thirst for water. It keeps you hydrated and helps prevent headaches.

They are filling: cucumbers are rich in fibre and protein which can fill you up, this is one of the keys to being satisfied after a meal or a snack. They also help in having a healthy body weight and weight loss.

They can regulate your digestion: cucumbers aid in digestion because they contain water which is important in digestion. More water means you won’t have to worry about constipation and bowel troubles.

They are good for blood sugar: cucumbers are low in sugar and carbohydrates, so it is advisable for people who are diabetic to eat cucumbers for it is good for their health.

They can reduce puffy eyes: All those times you’ve seen someone put a cucumber slice on their eyes in a spa or on television were not just for visual effect, they help reduce puffy eyes and redness around the eyes.

They are anti-inflammatory: cucumbers are full of antioxidants that help repairs the body tissues. In addition, cucumber anti-inflammatory may be so strong, some experts are exploring the role of cucurbitacins; a chemical compound found in the cucumber family, in reducing the risk of cancer compartments, in a 2013 article in the International Journal of Health Sciences.

They help prevent hair loss: one of the good stuff found in cucumber is silica, an element that promotes the growth of collagen and connective tissues in your skin making it stronger and more elastic. The presence of silica helps in preventing hair loss and thinning, it helps in making hair brighter.

It can help to improve the bones: this wonderful veggie contains vitamin k and calcium which is responsible for proper bone formation.

It improves the eye: it contains vitamin A which helps with vision, and it also helps in reproduction.